During the 16th century, Spain transformed from a modest European kingdom to a global hegemony. Spain’s success was driven by monetizing innovations in trans-ocean navigation and firearms to appropriate vast quantities of minerals (silver, copper, gold) from American conquest. However, like any mismanaged enterprise, Spain’s disastrous deployment of its new found capital led to its inevitable decline. Spain made three strategic (capital) management mistakes:
1) First strategic blunder: over-investing on a single high-risk growth platform, namely war. Despite having only a 30% success rate between 1520-1550, Spain persisted in doubling down good money after bad and waged campaigns with the French, the Ottomans and the Protestant German principalities. Spain’s war efforts led to a net negative cash-flow of ~$1MM ducat/year. For example, a single campaign against France in 1544 cost $2.8MM ducat, more than the entire estimated net profit stream from Peruvian silver appropriation. By the time Spain lost its Invincible Armada at the coasts of England in 1588, it was struggling with an untenable 0.7-0.85 debt-to-income ratio. Focusing on a single, risky growth platform prevented Spain from diversitying its (non-sustainable) colonial profit stream into other sustainable growth industries.
2) Second, Spain failed to adequately invest in its asset and capabilities (i.e. balance sheet). To provide one illustration, in the first decade after its colonization windfall, Spain made almost no investments in its domestic logistics infrastructure. By the late 1550’s, inland transport still relied on ox-carts and mule trains. Its lagging supply chain capabilities severely impeded Agriculture and Textile sector growth. In general, sub-optimal investment in infrastructure prevented Spain from developing foundational innovations to increase productivity and ramp-up the manufacturing value chain (a lesson that the British learned well as they embraced Mercantilism in the 1600-1700’s).
3) Lastly, Spain failed to reform its antiquated (Medieval) management operating model leading to ineffective policy decision making. Unlike the innovative Italian states or the emerging Dutch who employed professional bankers and merchants to devise investment strategies and economic policies, the Spanish Crown were hesitant to relinquish operational control and kept key management decisions “in-house”. Despite their “divine” status, the King and his high ranking nobles were likely lagging in financial and business acumen compared to the specialists such as the Fuggers, Welsers or Medicis.
Selected sources: Conquest, Tribute and Trade; A Splendid Exchange